doTerra is drugging YOUR children!

Back in 2015 when I was the webmaster for Aromatherapy United, I wrote a follow up post on the doTerra company essential oil Drug Claims: doterra-drug-claims

About a month ago, I reported a doTerra salesperson to the FDA for making drug claims. I decided to see whether the doTerra corporate claims that they are “policing their own” is true, and copied them, too.

They replied. They missed the point – focusing on making sure their salespeople are competing with each other fairly, but my point was made. doTerra cannot continue to claim they have no idea these claims are being made, because my email reply proves otherwise.

Things are not getting better – in fact they are getting worse.

Now thousands and thousands of doTerra salespeople are not just putting their individual customers in danger, they are putting entire classrooms of children in harms way by pushing EOs as drugs to be introduced into childrens bodies without parents knowledge.

Complete and total disregard for the fact that salespeople and other parents drugging other peoples children is illegal, they continue to promote EOs to treat, cure, mitigate or prevent medical conditions and now YOUR childs’ brain may be chemically altered, your child with asthma may be at risk of dying, and your child’s immune system may be impacted by diffusing essential oils in the classroom!

Inhalation is the most effective method for treating systemic medical conditions, using essential oils. When inhaled, they directly impact the brain by triggering the olfactory bulb.

In addition, they reach the bloodstream via the lungs and are one of the class of chemicals which can pass the blood/brain barrier.

Salespeople for this company are promoting the practice of putting chemicals so strong they are used off-label as drugs, into your little childs’ body, and no one is doing a thing to stop it…including the management of doTerra who know their Diamond Level Salespeople are promoting this practice!

I looked at the profile for Administrator for this Facebook Group – she is promoting essential oils as drugs on her personal Facebook profile.

I googled her – here is a graphic from the website for one of the people she is credited for recruiting into the doTerra company – yup – doTerra DRUG CLAIMS including Alzheimer’s diseasecancerpneumonia and more.


The FDA needs the public to report these illegal drug claims for essential oils by salespeople. The aromatherapy industry is self-regulated, and in order to maintain the freedom we currently have to purchase and use essential oils safely, we need to all work together to enforce the laws against those individuals who jeopardize our rights with their false and illegal claims for essential oils and aromatherapy products.

NOTE: you do not need to be injured or experience an adverse effect, to report dangerous products.

“If you find a website you think is illegally selling human drugs*, animal drugs, medical devices, biological products, foods, dietary supplements* or cosmetics* over the Web, please select one of the three options below to report to FDA.”

 

*An essential oil sold in any way that implies it can treat, cure, prevent, mitigate or cure a medical condition, is being sold as a misbranded human drug. Medical conditions include issues which are often treated using over-the-counter drugs including help acne, ease pain, relax muscles, aid sleep, etc.

 

New Aromatherapy Company Launch – Ology Essentials

From the new website for Ology Essentials

There is a great depth of knowledge, training, and commitment behind Ology Essentials. You can trust Ology Essentials for accurate, scientific, and honest no-hype information about essential oils, business, and natural cosmetics. The founder of Ology Essentials is certified aromatherapist and cosmetic formulator Kayla Fioravanti. She has been a trusted disseminator of knowledge and provider of high quality products since she and her husband first co-founded Essential Wholesale in 1998.

I have known and admired owner Kayla Fioravanti since I first started in the soap and aromatherapy industry myself many years ago and her articles, posts on social networking and knowledge she so freely shared through Essential Wholesale are very much a foundation of my own knowledge base.  I am thrilled she is back in this industry again and highly recommend her company as a source of products and her school as a great place to learn about safe essential oil use an aromatherapy.  She represents what ethics in aromatherapy looks like on every level!


NOTE: I did not receive any products at a discount or free in exchange for my review, nor have I been compensated in any way. I am just a fan! I have no material affiliation with the websites in this blog post.

Happy Thanksgiving

Happy Thanksgiving. I am grateful to have had the opportunity to post about essential oil and aromatherapy and herbal topics that are of interest to me both here on this blog and in my Facebook Group.

As of today we have 2,552 members in that Group, but with so little member participation, I have decided to direct my energies in a different direction. Teachers make a ton of money teaching courses to students, authors make money selling books, essential oil salespeople make money selling products.

I realize that my “ethics” are not in harmony with too many in this industry.

I’m not willing to turn a blind eye to the damage done to children, customers, and the industry itself by companies like doTerra – and stand silent while people make money, or promote their projects, or get their five minutes of “fame” in a self-serving *movie* – then be called a *hater* by exposing the hypocrisy in all of this. Educators who see the MLMers as their meal ticket with a “if you can’t beat them, join them” mentality. Men who finally open their mouths and take a stand – but when things get hot – let the women in their lives take the heat and they worry more about their reputation and so back pedal instead of stand strong and confront the challenges. I’m not an aromatherapist or an herbalist – I am a consumer and a blogger and I have always been offended by those who say things like “if people want to harm themselves with EOs, let them – thin the herd – natural selection – personal choice.” I’m done.

I’m going back to my herbal studies because I see a level of ethics, communication, unity of purpose, and professionalism in that community that is seriously lacking in every facet of the aromatherapy community and for my own personal wellness – I cannot take one more moment of people characterizing my passion for exposing FACTS about companies who are HARMING others as being a “hater” and when I am called a “HATER” – I realized not one single person in this industry that I considered to be an ally or friend – had my back. I’ve been the one to do the “dirty work” for too long. I should have known back in 2014 when a small group of us started discussing how to combat the dangerous marketing of essential oils as drugs – but one by one people were too afraid that putting their name out there would hurt THEIR book sales – or when it came down to SIGNING the online Petition – signing their name might cost them future students – that I would be left alone as the only person willing to SIGN the actual FDA complaint with my name. I took pride in that but I also thought doing all the hard work would align with others mission to promote safety. I was very naive. So this was a very eye opening experience to say the least.

No more free advice.

No more time spent exposing the lies and the fraud and the schemes that others use for personal gain.

I am done. THANK GOODNESS

Tisserand Defends Science

In a rare example of online confrontation; essential oil safety expert, author and educator Robert Tisserand recently took on blogger, guest speaker, educator Jade Schutes* in this blog post: In Defense of Science

Jade writes: “What’s better than research in aromatherapy? – Practice and the results an aromatherapy practitioner experiences with individual clients, with family members, with friends, and/or with self, and then sharing these experiences with other aromatherapy practitioners.”

Robert shared his blog post on both his personal Facebook profile and the business page for his Tisserand Institute. A rather heated series of comments on his and Jade’s Facebook pages followed. Many of the comments have since been deleted from both his and Jade’s Pages. How unfortunate!

One missing item is the topic which came up, of relying on testimonials and anecdotal reports of people who have positive effects from using EOs, or who are not harmed by using them in ways; but those same people totally dismiss testimonials and anecdotal reports when they are documenting injury or adverse effects!

I posted a link to the online Injury Database being hosted by Aromatherapy United, reports which have been collected by volunteers with The Atlantic Institute of Aromatherapy.

Side Note: Why are volunteers collecting this important data? When Jade was President of NAHA for the second time, without a vote of national Directors or Members, she directed that the data collection and much of the Safety information be removed from the NAHA website. Prior to that during her first reign as President, there was a petition and complaint sent to the IRS Nonprofit Regulations & Enforcement Division, requesting an investigation of her regarding issues including her use of non-profit funds for personal gain: http://nahaexposed.org/

These injury reports are nothing really unique. Almost all the injuries or adverse effects could have been predicted because there is science to support that almost every incident was the result of the injured party taking potential risks which outweighed the possible benefits.

But the very same people who dismiss the testimonials of injuries, somehow suspend disbelief when it comes to Jade’s claims that an individuals positive experience matters more than “research”.

Jade writes: “When I read what others have written from the ‘intellectual’ side regarding polarity, solubility, and sensitization risk, I think to myself, these are people who have never taken a bath with aromatic bathing salts or essential oils.”

Oh, but when that bath results in rash, chemical burns, one heck of a tender vagina – nope – doesn’t count. There was no third party verification that bath ever took place, or that skin was damaged, and whose to say this person was really in pain! Is there a hospital record? An invoice from an ambulance company! NO. Dimissed. Not enough proof.

The ‘intellectual’ side take baths. They are not working in climate controlled laboratories, in haz-mat suits, dripping EOs on rabbit skins to see what burns. Researchers are compiling data from people, people with positive experiences and people with negative experiences. Then they analyze that data.

Maybe even from the bathtub.


*It is not clear where Jade’s actual one-on-one experience with people using aromatherapy comes from. Nothing in her online biography indicates she has an actual Aromatherapy practice or sees clients. She is not licensed in any field, she is not a Registered Aromatherapist. Which leaves me wondering, where does all the aromatherapy practitioner experiences with individual clients *non-research* she depends on so much for teaching her students, actually come from!

UPDATE: I found the answer to my earlier question about how someone who does not say they have an aromatherapy practice, gets all this “aromatherapy practitioner experiences with individual clients”! Jade’s friends and students are her guinea pigs.  She experiments on them, then observes how they respond!  And why not?  In her opinion – right from her website – it’s no big deal.  Not like anyone died or anything.  Yet.

And in conclusion – it’s not “harm” per se – simply a tragedy:

Sensitization Update

Robert Tisserand announced today “Do not apply undiluted essential oils to your skin. It’s that simple.

“I have recently changed my stance on this after seeing the number of people experiencing adverse reactions to essential oils that are not high risk, such as frankincense, helichrysum and lavender.”

This announcement is tied into his new Tisserand Institute Safety Pages.

This is a long time coming.  Robert has always allowed for a certain amount of neat usage as low risk in the past (see quote below). So better late than never.  Because Sensitization is forever.

The National Association of Holistic Aromatherapy (NAHA) used to promote safety and warn about sensitization on their old website, under more safety-minded management.  Here is a link to my Lost and Found: Sensitization article on that subject.

Here is some additional information from an old article I wrote for the (defunct) American Essential Oil Trade Association (aka AEOTA):

Sensitization “exposure to allergen that results in the development of hypersensitivity.” [1]

essential oil poured on a female back in spa centre
essential oil poured on a female back in spa centre

So what is hypersensitivity? Is a hypersensitivity reaction the same as an allergic reaction?

Answer, yes. They are synonyms, BUT there are four different types of allergic reaction:

“a local or general reaction of an organism following contact with a specific allergen to which it has been previously exposed and sensitized; immunologic mechanisms gives rise to inflammation or tissue damage. Allergic reactions are classified into four major types: type I, anaphylactic and IgE dependent; type II, cytotoxic; type III, immune-complex mediated;type IV, cell mediated (delayed).”[2]

For the purposes of aromatherapy safety, any essential oil can become an allergen by using it undiluted on the skin; and this risk is there for all essential oils, including lavender (note – originally published in 2014).

So while there are certain essential oils which have a known reputation for being potential allergens or with a reputation for sensitization, using any essential oil neat (undiluted) sets the individul up for a potential allergic reaction, leading to sensitization, and forever being allergic to that essential oil.

Robert Tisserand explains:

“Yes, sensitization is the process that takes place in the body that leads to an allergic reaction. They are not the same thing, but they are not totally different either. There are 4 types of allergic reaction, [3] but only two are relevant to essential oils. Type 4 (delayed hypersensitivity) accounts for 90% of allergic reactions. Type 1 is immediate hypersensitivity (generally not anaphylactic) and accounts for the other 10%. You could say the risk is potentially there for all essential oils, but this is a little unfair on the majority of oils, that have never been known to cause such reactions. I don’t like to assume risk that may not exist. The less you dilute the more you increase risk, but that doesn’t mean that undiluted copaiba oil is a greater risk than 1% cinnamon bark oil. It isn’t.”

1. Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved
2. Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012
3. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/136217-overview

Young Living & “Intent” to sell drugs

Young Living has been trying to reign in their zillions of consultants ever since the Petition to Protect the Future of Aromatherapy and the resulting FTC and FDA complaints by Aromatherapy United, resulted in Warning Letters to the company.

petition-closed

 

Some things they have done in the best interest of their finances, like label certain essential oils as “dietary supplements” in order to legally make structure and function claims. That serves no one but themselves, and eventually the FDA will catch up to the fact that most of the structure and function claims they make are unsubstantiated and that there is no reason to ingest essential oils on a daily or even regular basis. It may take a few more deaths, but I believe it will happen.

But other things are done well, and while also with the ultimate goal of protecting the company, has the positive side benefit of protecting consumers from misleading SNAKE OIL sales pitches and dangerous advice, which have led to so many adverse reactions over the past years. [example see the Injury Databases at Aromatherapy United].

Here are a couple examples from a publicly available Young Living presentation from last year.

YLftc

Funny, some people just don’t get the message. So I took a couple screen shots off Facebook yesterday and I’ll be adding to the ongoing File of complaints with both the FTC and the FDA!

This particular consultant is making “pain relief” testimonial claims for topically applied YL essential oils, in spite of the fact that pain relief products are a category of over-the-counter drugs.

  • It does not matter if the essential oil is labeled and sold for topical use – making it a cosmetic;
  • it does not matter if the essential oils is labeled and sold as a “dietary supplement”:
  • pain relief is a DRUG CLAIM.

So unless that bottle is labeled according to FDA regulations for OTC Drugs – it is illegal to imply it will work to relieve pain.

It is dangerous enough that this company casually sells Wintergreen Essential Oil with no hazard warnings, but when their consultants continue to promote it as a drug – well – the company still has a long way to go before consumers are safe from their “consultants”!

So the next time a Young Living consultant tells you it is healthy to ingest essential oils – whether the bottle they are trying to sell you is labeled according to the FDA regulations for cosmetics, or labeled according to the FDA regulations for “dietary supplements”… you can tell them Young Living themselves says

“There are no health claims approved for essential oils”!

ylEO

Essential Oils as Food Flavors

If you eat prepared foods, or eat peppermint candy for example, you have ingested essential oils.

That’s not snarky, that’s a fact.

There is a HUGE difference between the internal therapeutic use (oral, vaginal or rectal) of essential oils and “ingestion” of essential oils as food flavorings.

The Alliance of International Aromatherapists does not recommend internal therapeutic use “unless recommended by a health care practitioner trained at an appropriate clinical level. An appropriate level of training must include chemistry, anatomy, diagnostics, physiology, formulation guidelines and safety issues regarding each specific internal route (oral, vaginal or rectal).

Herbal medicine
Herbal medicine

In the USA there a law called DSHEA which was introduced in order to allow certain ingredients or combinations of ingredients to be sold as “Dietary Supplements”. This is a great thing, it is why we can buy herbs, and vitamins without a prescription and without them being regulated as over-the-counter drugs. But it is also an unfortunate loophole for the suppliers who sell essential oils, and who do so with certain claims which are not allowed for essential oils sold for topical use.

An essential oil labeled according to the Trade Requirement & Guidance Policy of the American Herbal Products Association will have:

  • Common name;
  • Latin name;
  • Plant part;
  • The extraction process;
  • “Keep out of reach of children”
  • “External Use Only”or “Not for Internal Use” or “Not for Ingestion”

These product labels and their marketing, cannot make any medical claims, nor can they make any “structure or function” claims, because products sold for topical use with structure or function claims, are automatically considered drugs (OTC or prescription). [Example – FDA Warning Letter to Young Living]

So certain companies have decided to market and label their essential oils “as” dietary supplements for the sole purpose of being able to make structure function claims!

Nothing different about the ingredient itself is requiredthe only difference is the labeling.

THAT is why people – in my opinion – who are purchasing essential oils, need to understand the FDA regulations, whether they *believe* in the FDA or not.

There are also companies which sell essential oils as food flavorings.

The food industry is the largest consumer of essential oils next to the perfume industry. Essential oils sold as food flavorings are often standardized, because foods need to taste the same from batch to batch, year to year. So the industrial use of essential oils requires the ingredient fit a standard, often the ISO standard. So a certain year’s peppermint might be a bit off and so constituents from other essential oils are added to make the oil fit the required profile. But most people in the practices of  aromatherapy  want 100% pure essential oils – as they come off the still – not standardized for consistency. Standardization is considered to be a form of “adulturation” in the aromatherapy world.

And here is where the discussion took a confrontational turn.

Stating the fact that essential oils can and are used safely as food flavorings is not even remotely the same as saying that essential oils can be ingested safely as dietary supplements (or medically for that matter, unless one is properly trained in Aromatic Medicine).

“…I think that it gets confusing because people often refer to GRAS status, so they will say that this essential oil has GRAS status which means that it is generally recognized as safe by the EPA and the FDA. But actually what that applies to is the use of essential oils in food flavorings; specifically this only applies to food flavorings and not to other uses such as medicines. So GRAS status doesn’t mean this essential oil is safe to ingest, it means this essential oil is safe to use in food flavors, which yes does result in ingestion but the word ingestion is where the confusion happens because it is not a way of saying that this is OK to use as a medicine.” Robert Tisserand

There IS no diet which is missing essential oils, no diet which needs to be supplemented with essential oils. PERIOD.

There is no biological reason to ingest essential oils daily, or regularly for dietary or nutritional reasons or to improve the structure or function of the body. The marketing of essential oils for the purpose of improving the structure or function of the body is selling them as SNAKE OIL. It’s a money making scheme and nothing more.

When people use essential oils as food flavorings, they are adding perhaps a drop or two of oregano to an entire pot of spaghetti sauce or a drop of peppermint in an entire batch of chocolate frosting – where it is incorporated into the fats and other ingredients and can be ingested safely. It is never safe or appropriate to drink essential oils in water or add them to sports drinks. People have died from drinking lemon EO in water. It has been covered up, but they have died of liver failure. Other people have been near death in liver failure from ingesting “blends” sold as dietary supplements by MLMs.

This is one of the reasons professional aromatherapists avoid the big two MLMs, not just because both companies have been accused (and scientifically proven in many instances) to have sold adulturated EOs, but because the corporate culture of these companies puts not only their customers at risk, but risks the future for the entire aromatherapy industry.

Structure Function Claims

Originally published July 2, 2015

What follows in part, are the Young Living tips for using structure-function claims appropriately. The yellow highlights are my editorial emphasis. I have nothing much to add here other than a comment that since there is no legitimate scientific proof supporting the daily ingestion of lemon essential oil for ANY purpose, the industry should start to see that dangerous advice fade away if salespeople follow these tips.

The FDA does not allow any structure-function claims for products unless those products are sold under the FDA DSHEA food labeling laws, and labeled as dietary supplements.

So the same essential oil can be in two bottles, sold side by side, one labeled as a Dietary Supplement with instructions for ingestion and claims the essential oil will impact the structure or function of the body, and as long as there is science to support that claim – it is legal.

The same essential oil – even with an equal or greater body of science, or supported by historic use within the field of aromatherapy or herbal medicine – cannot be sold with the same claims, if the bottle is not marketed as a dietary supplement. And considering that ingestion is the more hazardous application in most cases, and should really only be undertaken under the direct supervision of someone trained in aromatic medicine – the FDA regulations do not make much sense. But, they are what they are and until they are changed, companies are required to follow them.

Claims that essential oils will treat, cure or prevent illness is illegal for essential oils whether the product is sold as a dietary supplement or not. Examples of medical conditions include colds, flu, acne, rash, insomnia, obesity, and pain.

S-F_claim

Buyer Beware ~ “Studies” & Generalizations

I am so excited to start the 2nd quarter of 2016 with new motivation and passion, directed 100% toward helping consumers make positive choices! So I am introducing a new Series – Buyer Beware.  I’m starting the series by reposting an article I originally published April 14, 2014. Enjoy!

Salespeople sometimes use studies as support for their medical claims for products like essential oils. These studies are taken out of context. The fact that a product or an ingredient is being studied as a cancer treatment for example, does not mean it should be used *as* a cancer treatment.

Salespeople (and some poorly educated practitioners) sometimes take the historic herbal use for a botanical, and generalize and apply those same properties to the essential oil.

The uses and safety concerns for a raw herb/flower/seed are often not the same as those for the essential oil. The uses and safety concerns for a water extract or an alcohol extract from a botanical are also often not the same as those for the essential oil.

Not convinced?

There is a seed which produces an oil we use for its many healing properties. It is used in food and skincare products. “Centuries ago, the plant was referred to as “Palma Christe” because the leaves were said to resemble the hand of Christ. 1.”

120px-seeds_of_ricinus_communis

And how about this…a product from the waste material from processing the seeds (aka beans) “has been used experimentally in medicine to kill cancer cells. 2.

Sounds like a win win, doesn’t it! If some of these MLM salespeople had access to this – they’d tell you to take this product internally because “it has been shown to kill cancer cells!”

The seed is the castor bean. The oil is castor oil. The waste material being studied? Ricin. Not familar with Ricin?

“Just 1 milligram of ricin is fatal if inhaled or ingested, and much less than that if injected. Eating just 5 to 10 castor seeds would be fatal. Once poisoned, there’s no antidote, which is why ricin has been used as a chemical warfare agent.”

So something that kills cells in a petri dish…may also kill a person. And just because one product from a plant may have a safe and appropriate use in cosmetic or medical care, does not automatically mean that other products from the exact same plant are even safe, much less effective for the same purposes.

1. http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2012/04/28/castor-oil-to-treat-health-conditions.aspx
2. http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/ricin/facts.asp

MYTH – Apply to Feet

MYTH – the feet are the best place to apply essential oils because the feet have the largest amount of pores to absorb the essential oils.

This is a MYTH because chemicals or ingredients are primarily absorbed into the body through the epidermis, not by entering through the sweat glands (invisible pores) or hair follicles (visible pores).

So neither the size or quantity of pores in the skin actually determine how much of a topically applied product is absorbed.

Here is a link to a very basic article that easily explains skin penetration and absorption: http://personalcaretruth.com/2011/01/the-impermeable-facts-of-skin-penetration-and-absorption/

You will notice pores are not mentioned.

583px-skin-291x300That is because the function of pores (aka follicles) are the openings in our skin where a hair comes out, and dead cells, sebum exit. Pores are primarily exits, not entrances. Not for products, ingredients, or chemicals – even essential oils – to enter.

What about our sweaty feet – they aren’t (thankfully) hairy – don’t we have the most pores in our whole body on our feet?

No. Feet have a lot of sweat glands (250,000 each) which are different from pores like we see on our face, for example.

“‘Skin pore’ is a term used by lay people and in the field of cosmetology. It remains misleading when it is not clearly defined. Indeed, lay people use it with at least 3 different meanings. Basically, invisible pores represent the openings of the sweat gland apparatus. By contrast, the visible pores represent enlarged empty funnel-shaped or cylindrical horny impacted openings of pilosebaceous follicles.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15604536

So the question – do products applied topically get absorbed through the sweat glands?

“Absorption via the pores and follicles is considered to be insignificant because the orifices account for only 0.1% of the skin area and diffusion along sweat ducts is against an outward aqueous flow (4). Lauer et al….”

Percutaneous Absorption: Drugs–Cosmetics–Mechanisms–Methodology: Drugs edited by Robert L. Bronaugh, Howard I. Maibach

skinlayers-300x297So so summarize – how does dermal absorption work?

“The epidermis (and particularly the stratum corneum) is the only layer that is important in regulating penetration of a skin contaminant.”

“The thickness of the stratum corneum varies greatly with regions of the body. The stratum corneum of the palms and soles is very thick (400-600 µM) whereas that of the arms, back, legs, and abdomen is much thinner (8-15 µM). The stratum corneum of the axillary (underarm) and inquinal (groin) regions is the thinnest with the scrotum especially thin. As expected, the efficiency of penetration of toxicants is inversely related to the thickness of the epidermis.”

“In addition to the stratum corneum, small amounts of chemicals may be absorbed through the sweat glands, sebaceous glands, and hair follicles. Since these structures represent, however, only a very small percentage of the total surface area, they are not ordinarily important in dermal absorption.”

http://www.eoearth.org/view/article/149799/

Then there is the reflexology spin that some salespeople put on the reason to use the EOs on the feet – this article addresses that: http://www.thebarefootdragonfly.com/essential-oils-and-the-feet/


 

“The soles of the feet absorb more slowly because they have no hair, and because of the mostly thicker skin. “

“The soles of the feet and palms of the hands contain many eccrine (sweat) glands, through which water is released onto the skin. Since essential oils are not water soluble, they cannot use these glands to bypass the skin barrier. Not even water-soluble substances enter the body through sweat glands. If they did, we would put on weight after a swim or a shower. The palms and soles have no hair follicles. Hair follicles contain sebum, an oily substance, and there is some evidence that essential oil constituents are able to use this route to bypass the skin barrier.”
–Robert Tisserand, Robert Tisserand Essential Training [Facebook Group]

As originally published on Aromatherapy United website; Apr 20, 2014, by Susan Sawhill Apito