Young Living & “Intent” to sell drugs

Young Living has been trying to reign in their zillions of consultants ever since the Petition to Protect the Future of Aromatherapy and the resulting FTC and FDA complaints by Aromatherapy United, resulted in Warning Letters to the company.

petition-closed

 

Some things they have done in the best interest of their finances, like label certain essential oils as “dietary supplements” in order to legally make structure and function claims. That serves no one but themselves, and eventually the FDA will catch up to the fact that most of the structure and function claims they make are unsubstantiated and that there is no reason to ingest essential oils on a daily or even regular basis. It may take a few more deaths, but I believe it will happen.

But other things are done well, and while also with the ultimate goal of protecting the company, has the positive side benefit of protecting consumers from misleading SNAKE OIL sales pitches and dangerous advice, which have led to so many adverse reactions over the past years. [example see the Injury Databases at Aromatherapy United].

Here are a couple examples from a publicly available Young Living presentation from last year.

YLftc

Funny, some people just don’t get the message. So I took a couple screen shots off Facebook yesterday and I’ll be adding to the ongoing File of complaints with both the FTC and the FDA!

This particular consultant is making “pain relief” testimonial claims for topically applied YL essential oils, in spite of the fact that pain relief products are a category of over-the-counter drugs.

  • It does not matter if the essential oil is labeled and sold for topical use – making it a cosmetic;
  • it does not matter if the essential oils is labeled and sold as a “dietary supplement”:
  • pain relief is a DRUG CLAIM.

So unless that bottle is labeled according to FDA regulations for OTC Drugs – it is illegal to imply it will work to relieve pain.

It is dangerous enough that this company casually sells Wintergreen Essential Oil with no hazard warnings, but when their consultants continue to promote it as a drug – well – the company still has a long way to go before consumers are safe from their “consultants”!

So the next time a Young Living consultant tells you it is healthy to ingest essential oils – whether the bottle they are trying to sell you is labeled according to the FDA regulations for cosmetics, or labeled according to the FDA regulations for “dietary supplements”… you can tell them Young Living themselves says

“There are no health claims approved for essential oils”!

ylEO

Wintergreen EO – Buyer Beware

WINTERGREEN

Wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens) essential oil

CAS numbers
USA: 68917-75-9;
EINECS: 90045-28-6

EPA Reason for Regulation: Chemical in Commerce

Synonym: Wintergreen oil

List Name: Inert Ingredients in Pesticide Products

CHIP detailsXn; R22, 36; 0%; S26 (A26) – “Ingestion can cause severe poisoning and death, Lethal doses with children  at 10 ml, adults at 30 ml.” — Guenther, volume II, page 640

Wintergreen Essential Oil contains 85-99% of methyl salicylate, the same component of aspirin.

Thirty ml (about an ounce) of wintergreen oil is equivalent to about 171 adult aspirin tablets or about 60 grams of aspirin.

Members of the International Federation of Aromatherapists take a “vow” not to use Wintergreen essential oil. 

“How does it work?

Wintergreen leaf contains an aspirin-like chemical that might reduce pain, swelling, and fever.

WINTERGREEN Side Effects & Safety 

Wintergreen is safe in the amounts found in foods, and seems safe for most adults when used as a medicine.

The oil is UNSAFE to take by mouth. Taking wintergreen oil or large amounts of wintergreen leaf can cause ringing in the ears, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, stomach pain, and confusion.

When applied directly to the skin, wintergreen oil can cause skin irritation.

Special Precautions & Warnings:Children: Wintergreen leaf and oil can be poisonous for children. Taking 4-10 mL of wintergreen oil by mouth can be deadly. Don’t even use wintergreen oil on the skin of children less than 2 years old.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Wintergreen is safe in amounts found in food, but there’s not enough information to know if it’s safe in the larger amounts that are used as medicine. Don’t take it by mouth or put it on your skin, if you are pregnant.

If you are breast-feeding, don’t take wintergreen by mouth or put it on your skin. Wintergreen products might be toxic to nursing infants.

Stomach and intestinal inflammation: Taking wintergreen by mouth might make these conditions worse.

Salicylate or aspirinallergy, asthma, or nasal polyps: Wintergreen might cause an allergic reaction in people who are allergic to aspirin or other salicylate compounds, or have asthma or nasal polyps. Use wintergreen with caution if you have one of these conditions.”

http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-783-WINTERGREEN.aspx?activeIngredientId=783&activeIngredientName=WINTERGREEN

INTERACTIONS http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-783-WINTERGREEN.aspx?activeIngredientId=783&activeIngredientName=WINTERGREEN

“Methyl salicylate must be absolutely avoided by anyone taking blood-thinning drugs, as it increases the action of the drug, and this causes blood to leak into tissues and  internal bruising occurs. Knowing a lethal dose tells you very little about what (a) a therapeutic dose would be or (b) a safe dose would be, but it does tell you what dose not to use!”http://roberttisserand.com/2012/03/wintergreen-oil-safety/

TITLE 21–FOOD AND DRUGSCHAPTER I–FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATIONDEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES SUBCHAPTER C–DRUGS: GENERAL   PART 201 LABELING Subpart G–Specific Labeling Requirements for Specific Drug Products

Sec. 201.303 Labeling of drug preparations containing significant proportions of wintergreen oil.  

(a) Because methyl salicylate (wintergreen oil) manifests no toxicity in the minute amounts in which it is used as a flavoring, it is mistakenly regarded by the public as harmless even when taken in substantially larger amounts. Actually, it is quite toxic when taken in quantities of a teaspoonful or more. Wintergreen oil and preparations containing it have caused a number of deaths through accidental misuse by both adults and children. Children are particularly attracted by the odor and are likely to swallow these products when left within reach.

(b) To safeguard against fatalities from this cause, the Department of Health and Human Services will regard as misbranded under the provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act any drug containing more than 5 percent methyl salicylate (wintergreen oil), the labeling of which fails to warn that use otherwise than as directed therein may be dangerous and that the article should be kept out of reach of children to prevent accidental poisoning.

(c) This statement of interpretation in no way exempts methyl salicylate (wintergreen oil) or its preparations from complying in all other respects with the requirements of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

and

(g)(1) The label of any drug containing more than 5 percent methyl salicylate (wintergreen oil) should bear a conspicuous warning such as: “Do not use otherwise than as directed.” These drug products must also include the “Keep out of reach of children” warning and the accidental ingestion warning as required in 330.1(g) of this chapter.

(2) If the preparation is a counterirritant or rubefacient, it should also bear a caution such as, “Caution: Discontinue use if excessive irritation of the skin develops. Avoid getting into the eyes or on mucous membranes.” (See also 201.303.)

http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/cfrsearch.cfm?cfrpart=201&showfr=1&subpartnode=21:4.0.1.1.2.7


Originally Published on: Oct 4, 2014 @ 06:03

UPDATED 8/21/2016

wintergreen

NOTE: when Wintergreen EO is sold with medical claims, such as referring to pain relief – the product is being sold as a misbranded drug.  Wintergreen products which contain more than 5% methyl salicylate (and 100% pure Wintergreen EO is 85-99% of methyl salicylate) – are required to have very specific WARNINGS. Does the brand you buy have these warnings?

poisonousplants

There is a reason to keep EOs out of the reach of children, and take their use seriously.  These are wonderful products when used properly and safely.  Potential poisons when not.  Wintergreen is one of the EOs which due to it’s chemical nature – is absorbed through the skin and may reach the bloodstream.  Many people have been hospitalized and there is at least one death, attributed to topical application of wintergreen oil or products which contain it as an ingredient.  That is why products with Wintergreen are supposed to be labeled as OTC or prescription drugs, and contain dosages, contraindications, “when to seek medical attention” and all the other labeling requirements of DRUGS.

Essential Oils as Food Flavors

If you eat prepared foods, or eat peppermint candy for example, you have ingested essential oils.

That’s not snarky, that’s a fact.

There is a HUGE difference between the internal therapeutic use (oral, vaginal or rectal) of essential oils and “ingestion” of essential oils as food flavorings.

The Alliance of International Aromatherapists does not recommend internal therapeutic use “unless recommended by a health care practitioner trained at an appropriate clinical level. An appropriate level of training must include chemistry, anatomy, diagnostics, physiology, formulation guidelines and safety issues regarding each specific internal route (oral, vaginal or rectal).

Herbal medicine
Herbal medicine

In the USA there a law called DSHEA which was introduced in order to allow certain ingredients or combinations of ingredients to be sold as “Dietary Supplements”. This is a great thing, it is why we can buy herbs, and vitamins without a prescription and without them being regulated as over-the-counter drugs. But it is also an unfortunate loophole for the suppliers who sell essential oils, and who do so with certain claims which are not allowed for essential oils sold for topical use.

An essential oil labeled according to the Trade Requirement & Guidance Policy of the American Herbal Products Association will have:

  • Common name;
  • Latin name;
  • Plant part;
  • The extraction process;
  • “Keep out of reach of children”
  • “External Use Only”or “Not for Internal Use” or “Not for Ingestion”

These product labels and their marketing, cannot make any medical claims, nor can they make any “structure or function” claims, because products sold for topical use with structure or function claims, are automatically considered drugs (OTC or prescription). [Example – FDA Warning Letter to Young Living]

So certain companies have decided to market and label their essential oils “as” dietary supplements for the sole purpose of being able to make structure function claims!

Nothing different about the ingredient itself is requiredthe only difference is the labeling.

THAT is why people – in my opinion – who are purchasing essential oils, need to understand the FDA regulations, whether they *believe* in the FDA or not.

There are also companies which sell essential oils as food flavorings.

The food industry is the largest consumer of essential oils next to the perfume industry. Essential oils sold as food flavorings are often standardized, because foods need to taste the same from batch to batch, year to year. So the industrial use of essential oils requires the ingredient fit a standard, often the ISO standard. So a certain year’s peppermint might be a bit off and so constituents from other essential oils are added to make the oil fit the required profile. But most people in the practices of  aromatherapy  want 100% pure essential oils – as they come off the still – not standardized for consistency. Standardization is considered to be a form of “adulturation” in the aromatherapy world.

And here is where the discussion took a confrontational turn.

Stating the fact that essential oils can and are used safely as food flavorings is not even remotely the same as saying that essential oils can be ingested safely as dietary supplements (or medically for that matter, unless one is properly trained in Aromatic Medicine).

“…I think that it gets confusing because people often refer to GRAS status, so they will say that this essential oil has GRAS status which means that it is generally recognized as safe by the EPA and the FDA. But actually what that applies to is the use of essential oils in food flavorings; specifically this only applies to food flavorings and not to other uses such as medicines. So GRAS status doesn’t mean this essential oil is safe to ingest, it means this essential oil is safe to use in food flavors, which yes does result in ingestion but the word ingestion is where the confusion happens because it is not a way of saying that this is OK to use as a medicine.” Robert Tisserand

There IS no diet which is missing essential oils, no diet which needs to be supplemented with essential oils. PERIOD.

There is no biological reason to ingest essential oils daily, or regularly for dietary or nutritional reasons or to improve the structure or function of the body. The marketing of essential oils for the purpose of improving the structure or function of the body is selling them as SNAKE OIL. It’s a money making scheme and nothing more.

When people use essential oils as food flavorings, they are adding perhaps a drop or two of oregano to an entire pot of spaghetti sauce or a drop of peppermint in an entire batch of chocolate frosting – where it is incorporated into the fats and other ingredients and can be ingested safely. It is never safe or appropriate to drink essential oils in water or add them to sports drinks. People have died from drinking lemon EO in water. It has been covered up, but they have died of liver failure. Other people have been near death in liver failure from ingesting “blends” sold as dietary supplements by MLMs.

This is one of the reasons professional aromatherapists avoid the big two MLMs, not just because both companies have been accused (and scientifically proven in many instances) to have sold adulturated EOs, but because the corporate culture of these companies puts not only their customers at risk, but risks the future for the entire aromatherapy industry.

Structure Function Claims

Originally published July 2, 2015

What follows in part, are the Young Living tips for using structure-function claims appropriately. The yellow highlights are my editorial emphasis. I have nothing much to add here other than a comment that since there is no legitimate scientific proof supporting the daily ingestion of lemon essential oil for ANY purpose, the industry should start to see that dangerous advice fade away if salespeople follow these tips.

The FDA does not allow any structure-function claims for products unless those products are sold under the FDA DSHEA food labeling laws, and labeled as dietary supplements.

So the same essential oil can be in two bottles, sold side by side, one labeled as a Dietary Supplement with instructions for ingestion and claims the essential oil will impact the structure or function of the body, and as long as there is science to support that claim – it is legal.

The same essential oil – even with an equal or greater body of science, or supported by historic use within the field of aromatherapy or herbal medicine – cannot be sold with the same claims, if the bottle is not marketed as a dietary supplement. And considering that ingestion is the more hazardous application in most cases, and should really only be undertaken under the direct supervision of someone trained in aromatic medicine – the FDA regulations do not make much sense. But, they are what they are and until they are changed, companies are required to follow them.

Claims that essential oils will treat, cure or prevent illness is illegal for essential oils whether the product is sold as a dietary supplement or not. Examples of medical conditions include colds, flu, acne, rash, insomnia, obesity, and pain.

S-F_claim

Buyer Beware ~ “Studies” & Generalizations

I am so excited to start the 2nd quarter of 2016 with new motivation and passion, directed 100% toward helping consumers make positive choices! So I am introducing a new Series – Buyer Beware.  I’m starting the series by reposting an article I originally published April 14, 2014. Enjoy!

Salespeople sometimes use studies as support for their medical claims for products like essential oils. These studies are taken out of context. The fact that a product or an ingredient is being studied as a cancer treatment for example, does not mean it should be used *as* a cancer treatment.

Salespeople (and some poorly educated practitioners) sometimes take the historic herbal use for a botanical, and generalize and apply those same properties to the essential oil.

The uses and safety concerns for a raw herb/flower/seed are often not the same as those for the essential oil. The uses and safety concerns for a water extract or an alcohol extract from a botanical are also often not the same as those for the essential oil.

Not convinced?

There is a seed which produces an oil we use for its many healing properties. It is used in food and skincare products. “Centuries ago, the plant was referred to as “Palma Christe” because the leaves were said to resemble the hand of Christ. 1.”

120px-seeds_of_ricinus_communis

And how about this…a product from the waste material from processing the seeds (aka beans) “has been used experimentally in medicine to kill cancer cells. 2.

Sounds like a win win, doesn’t it! If some of these MLM salespeople had access to this – they’d tell you to take this product internally because “it has been shown to kill cancer cells!”

The seed is the castor bean. The oil is castor oil. The waste material being studied? Ricin. Not familar with Ricin?

“Just 1 milligram of ricin is fatal if inhaled or ingested, and much less than that if injected. Eating just 5 to 10 castor seeds would be fatal. Once poisoned, there’s no antidote, which is why ricin has been used as a chemical warfare agent.”

So something that kills cells in a petri dish…may also kill a person. And just because one product from a plant may have a safe and appropriate use in cosmetic or medical care, does not automatically mean that other products from the exact same plant are even safe, much less effective for the same purposes.

1. http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2012/04/28/castor-oil-to-treat-health-conditions.aspx
2. http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/ricin/facts.asp

Making Cosmetics

There is so much to know when you make cosmetics like soap, lotions, salves, balms, scrubs…from proper chemistry and safe preservation to the FDA regulations for labeling the finished products. It does not matter if you sell one or two products to friends, at the local Farmers Market or on EBAY, everyone has to follow proper cosmetic formulation rules in order to produce a safe and healthy product and the FDA regulations apply to everyone!

Here is my MUST READ list. I am fortunate that my past career working for the Handcrafted Soap Makers Guild and later running the Natural Ingredient Resource Center, and selling advertising space for The Herb Quarterly magazine, introduced me to these authors personally. I highly recommend any and all of them!

The Real Skin Absorption Facts

Whether you are new to aromatherapy or have been using essential oils for 30 years, you probably have read “everything we put on the skin gets absorbed into the bloodstream” – or – “60% of what we apply to the skin gets absorbed” – or even – “when applied to the skin up to 80% penetrates via the sweat glands and hair follicles“.

When asked for references to support these statements, there is nothing. Why? Because these statements are not true.

Robert Tisserand has addressed absorption at length in classes and online in his Facebook page, and debunked the “80% and 60%” claims numerous times.”

“Since essential oils are not water soluble, they cannot use these (sweat) glands to bypass the skin barrier. Not even water-soluble substances enter the body through sweat glands. If they did, we would put on weight after a swim or a shower. The palms and soles have no hair follicles. Hair follicles contain sebum, an oily substance, and there is some evidence that essential oil constituents are able to use this route to bypass the skin barrier.” –Robert Tisserand, Robert Tisserand Essential Training [Facebook Group] ref. http://aromatherapyunited.org/myth-apply-to-feet/

What is the truth then? From this article “Why Is Essential Oil Dilution Important?” we read in part, “About 5% of applied EO is absorbed into the body through the skin…” http://roberttisserand.com/2014/05/essential-oil-dilution-important/

Asked where this statistic comes from, author Robert Tisserand replied:

“Transdermal absorption is in Essential Oil Safety p42-44 and Table 4.2. From all the data I assume a max of 10% and an average of 5%.” 

EOSpage42

 

EOSTable4

 

So then, what is the best method for introducing essential oils to the bloodstream for systemic effect? Answer – inhalation.

“On p 49 under Inhalation you will find data on absorption into the blood and pulmonary uptake – generally 40-70%.” — Robert Tisserand

EOSpage49

I am sharing these images from my copy of the book, Essential Oil Safety, with permission. COPYRIGHT PROTECTED. Please feel free to share links to this article but do not copy any part of the article without proper attribution and do not remove and/or download the images from this article.

Consider the source…

Whether you are looking for a teacher, a supplier, or just advice online..always consider the source!

Teachers claim to be a Certified Aromatherapist, even add initials after their name as if that means something.  Before you sign up for that workshop, class or school…ask them; Where did they study? Then check the credentials of the school! Are they teaching aromatherapy along with tarot card reading and angel healing?  Well, that might not be the level of professional education you want to find in your teacher! The title Certified Aromatherapist has no defined meaning in the USA. Read more about that subject on What does Certified Aromatherapist Mean?

It’s not just in seeking out a proper education, that you need to consider the source, and check actual credentials!

Example, who who knows best…the essential oil chemist or the chiropractor?

Essential Oil chemist, Dr. Robert Pappas wrote (in part): [on the Essential Oils University Facebook page]

“Recently a follower of this page sent me some links to some sites claiming that black pepper oil is a replacement for melissa oil. When I heard this I was quite shocked. At the end of the day the therapeutic properties of an oil are determined by its chemistry. Melissa oil and black pepper oil are about as far apart chemically and organoleptically as you can get so I am just wondering, from where does this myth originate?”

It turns out, this misinformation comes from the very top, one of the owners of doTerra, Dr. David Hill. Dr. Hill is a chiropractor, and former office manager/administrator for Young Living Essential Oils. You can still see him online, telling everyone that Young Living is “the best” essential oil company, and the only one to trust.

blackpepper

Emily Wright, Executive Vice President at doTERRA replied to Dr. Pappas comments (in part):

“Now let’s keep in perspective that Dr. Pappas has a PhD in chemistry, a physical science. He is not a physician, he does not study life science, and he is not an expert in the application or usage of essential oils.” and “Now let’s take the science of essential oils up another notch. It is important now to work with experienced physicians who understand not only how essential oils perform in a lab setting but also how they interact with our human chemistry.” and later “Many have heard Dr. Hill state that Black Pepper is the poor man’s Melissa. This is not because their chemistry is similar. It is not. The chemical profile of these two oils couldn’t be more different. Rather, Dr. Hill is referring to the anti-viral activity of these two oils. Although no oil can completely replace Melissa, there are other oils that offer similar health benefits. Black Pepper is one of them. This has been proven through years of experimental application with excellent results.”

Essential Oil University responded:

“Emily, I appreciate your input and compliments and am ready to be done with this thread. The only thing I have to say in response is that there are posts all over the Internet claiming that black pepper is the “poor man’s Melissa” because black pepper is high in aldehydes like Melissa oil. I don’t know who put these posts up but they are there. But if you just look at some analyses of black pepper one can easily see there are no aldehydes in black pepper oil. So my only question is, if the conclusion concerning black pepper was made based off of undeniably incorrect chemistry then from what science is the conclusion based? I am more than happy to admit that I am wrong. But for my own education I would like to see any scientific literature out there that supports black pepper oil being anti-viral or being used used in the same capacity as Melissa oil. I like to think I have good standing with most all of the well known aromatherapists in the world and I know what most of them teach. I have not seen any studies showing such activity of black pepper. Is it possible I’ve missed something? Of course, it is. That’s why I am asking for something to hang my hat on so I can be in support of this. Please if anyone can provide me with a study supporting this idea I would be eternally grateful.
· October 11, 2014 at 9:46pm

And Dr. P. supported his statement with a link: “Example of a post stating incorrectly that black pepper is high in aldehydes: http://www.pinterest.com/pin/23855073001118666/”

There is no reply from Emily Wright on this topic. The management of doTerra are allowing their consultant to continue to display this misinformation, as the PIN is still there. [ref. https://www.facebook.com/EssentialOilUniversity/posts/10152874289653083]

So who do YOU believe…the chiropractor who never studied aromatherapy or essential oil chemistry, who is trying to convince you to buy products from the company he co-owns; or the expert in essential oil chemistry who has been an integral part of the aromatherapy community since the 90’s? Consider the source.

Frankincense

The truth about Frankincense – an example of how the herbal/botanical as medicine may be very different from the essential oil as medicine.

“Frankincense is a well-known anti-inflammatory. Of the more than 300 known active ingredients in frankincense essential oil, boswellic acids are the most well-studied. Examining the curative effect of frankincense, Professor Werz and his colleagues were able to show where exactly how boswellic acids – which are responsible for the impact of the ingredients of the Boswellia resin – interfere in the process of inflammation.”

nyrnaturalnews.com/article/a-gift-from-the-desert-the-healing-powers-of-frankincense/

Now if I were a salesperson who knew nothing about essential oil chemistry, I might reference this article and say “use Frankincense EO to treat inflammatory disease”.

Except, this article is not about the essential oil – there is no boswellic acid in steam or hydrodistilled Frankincense essential oil. The “active substances (which) can be very beneficial in therapies against diseases like asthma, rheumatoid arthritis or atopic dermatitis” this article refers to, are extracted using an alcohol extraction method, not steam distillation. So they are not essential oils.


[Disclaimer – I am an Independent Consultant with NYR Organic and sell both frankincense essential oil and aromatherapy skincare products which contain it, as well as a nutritional supplement which contains Boswellia Serrata Extract @ 65% Boswellic Acid; the supplement does not contain the EO.]


 

More Frankincense Research

“The smell of frankincense resin and powder, as well as burned frankincense, has been linked to a series of health effects since ancient times. Additionally, frankincense and its fumes are used as a means to induce positive psychophysical effects and well-being, not only in an ecclesiastical setting but also in traditional medical applications. This review aims to provide an overview of current knowledge of the volatile constituents of frankincense, with explicit consideration concerning the diverse Boswellia varieties. Altogether, more than 300 volatiles in frankincense have been reported in the literature. In particular, a broad diversity has been found in the qualitative and quantitative composition of the volatiles with respect to different varieties of Boswellia. A detailed discussion of the various analytical approaches applied to isolating and analysing the volatile fractions of frankincense is also presented.”
Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Learn more: The volatile constituents of frankincense – a review – onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ffj.1942/abstract

There is another article which readers can access [hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2013/140509/], however it has been retracted

“This article has been retracted as it was found to contain a substantial amount of material from the manuscript titled “The volatile constituents of frankincense – a review” by Michaela Mertens, Andrea Buettnera, and Eva Kirchhoffa which was published in Flavour and Fragrance Journal, Volume 24, Issue 6, pages 279–300, November/December 2009, without proper citation.”

But you can still *read between the lines*!

“The essential oils of Boswellia plants showed different activities which is summarized in Table 3.”

hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2013/140509/tab3/


January 17, 2016 – Updated to add link to this new article by #RobertTisserand
http://tisserandinstitute.org/frankincense-oil-and-cancer-in-perspective/